Saha Satta . A brief view on the authors of Saha Satta

A brief view on the authors of Saha Satta

1.    Muhammad al-Bukhari (Imam Bukhari)
2.    Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri (Imam Muslim)
3.    Abu Dawud Sulaiman bin al-ibn IshaaqIbn Basyir Asyas Syidad (Imam Abu-Dawud)
4.    Abu Isa Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Sawrah ibn Musa (Al-Tirmidhi)
5.    Ahmad ibn Shuayb, Abu Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai (Al-Nasai)
6.    Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Yazid Ibn Majah al-Rabi al-Qazwini (Ibn Majah)

Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri (Imam Muslim)

Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushairi al-Nishapuri popularly known as Imam Muslim. His kunya (nickname) was Abu Al-Husayn and his laqab was Al-Qushairi. Muslim author of the second most widely recognized collection of Hadith in Sunni Islam, Sahih Muslim.
Name:    Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj
Title:        Imam Muslim
Birth:        202 AH  or 206 AH/ 821AD Nishapur, Iran
Death:    261 AH / 875AD Nishapur, Iran
Era:        Medieval era
Region:    Iranian scholar
Maddhab:    Sunni
School :    Shafii
Works:    He wrote many books regarding Islam

Early life
He was born in the town of Nishapur located in present day northeastern Iran. He is the son of Hajjaj son of Muslim son of Ward of the Arab tribe of Qushair. Among the author's teachers were included Harmala ibn Yahya, Said ibn Mansur, Abd-Allah ibn Maslamah al-Qanabi, al-Dhuhali, al-Bukhari, Ibn Main, Yahya ibn Yahya al-Nishapuri al-Tamimi, and others. Among his students were al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, and Ibn Khuzaymah, each of which wrote works on hadith as well. After many studies throughout the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Iraq and Syria, he settled down in his hometown of Nishapur where he first met Bukhari, with whom he would have a friendship until his death.
Last years
The way in which Imam Muslim died also exemplifies his thirst for knowledge, He was once in a gathering where a hadith was mentioned that he didn’t know about, He went home, turned off his room light and told his family to let him be because he was doing research in finding the hadith, They told him that they had a basket of dates for him. He took the dates and started eating them one at a time until he had emptied the basket, when this happened he found the hadith but then returned to His Al-Mighty Lord, Allah SWT. He died at the age of 57 in the path of knowledge in the year 261H/875CE and was buried in the suburbs of Nishapur, Iran.
Imam Muslim authored many books, most of which were on the science of hadith including
•    Kitab Al Musnad Al Kabir
•    ‘Ala Al-Rijal,
•    Jami’ Kabir, Kitab,
•    Al-Asmma Wal-Kuna Kitab Al-Ilal,
•    Kitab Al Afrad,
•    Kitab Awlaadus-Sahaba
•    His most famous work however is the Al-Jami As-Sahih which
is known by its famous name Sahih Muslim.
Sahi Muslim
As it is commonly referred to, is one of the six canonical hadith collections of Sunni Islam. His book is considered among Sunni Muslims the most authentic collections of hadith, second only to Sahih Bukhari.
Estimates on how many hadiths are in his books vary widely from 12,000 to 3,033 depending on whether they remove the duplicates, and consider only the text or the isnad as well. The book is said to share about 1900 hadiths with Bukhari's Sahih. Known across the Muslim world for his strength in ahadith verification and exceptional knowledge of Islamic sciences, Imam Muslim attracted many students such as Abu Hatim Razi, Musa bin Haroon, Ahmad bin Salama, Imam Abu Isa Tirmidhi, Abu Bakar ibn Khuzaima & Imam Adh-Dhahabi.
Imam Muslim is praised by many scholars during and after his times. Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajr Al-Asqalani said about him as being a ‘Trustworthy, preserver, and scholar of jurisprudence’.
Ahmad bin Salamah said ‘I saw Imam Abu Zurah & Imam Abu Haatim, they would give Imam Muslim precedence over the scholars of their time to know the authenticity of Ahadith .Imam Ishaaq Kausaj said to Imam Muslim ‘Up until Allah keeps you alive for the Muslims we will not be deprived of good’.

Muhammad al-Bukhari (Imam Bukhari)

Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari popularly known as Al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari .He was a famous Sunni Islamic scholar of Persian ancestry. He was, perhaps, best known for authoring the hadith collection named Sahih Bukhari, a collection which Sunni Muslims regard as the most authentic of all hadith compilations and the most authoritative book after the Quran.

Name    :     Muhammad Ibn Ismail al-Bukhari
Title    :    Imam Bukhari
Birth    :    194 AH/810AD Bukhara, Persia
Death    :    256 AH/870AD Khazantak, near Samarqand, Persia
Era    :    Medieval era
Region    :    Muslim scholar
Maddhab:    Sunni
School    :     Mujtahid
Works    :    He wrote many books regarding Islam.
Life of Bukhari:
He was born in 810AD/194AH in the city of Bukhara, Persia (in what is today Uzbekistan). His father, Ismail Ibn Ibrahim, was a known hadith scholar who died while he was young. He began studying hadith in the year 205AH. He memorized the works of [‘Abdullah] Ibn al-Mubaarak while still a child. He was raised by his mother because his father died when he was an infant. He traveled with his mother and brother in the year 210 after having heard the narrations of his region. He began authoring books and narrating hadith while still an adolescent. He said, “When I turned eighteen years old, I began writing about the Companions and the Followers and their statements. This was during the time of ‘Ubaid Allah Ibn Musa (one of his teachers). At that time I also authored a book of history at the grave of the Prophet at night during a full moon.
Last years
In the year 864 AD/250 AH, he settled in Nishapur. It was in Nishapur that he met Muslim Ibn al-Hajjaj. He would be considered his student, and eventually collector and organizer of hadith collection Sahih Muslim which is considered second only to that of al-Bukhari. Political problems led him to move to Khartank, a village near Samarkand where he died in the year 870 AD/256 AH.
•    Al-Jami’ Al-Musnad al-Sahih al-Mukhtasar min umur Rasul Allah wa sunnanihi wa ayyamihi – The abridged collection of authentic connected chains regarding matters pertaining to the Prophet, his practices and his times. – Also known as Sahih Bukhari.
•    Al Adab Al Mufrad  – Guidance in Good Manners and Etiquette for Muslims
•    Al-Tarikh al-Kabir, The Great History, – it contains biographies of narrators, with a rating of many
•    Al-Tarikh al-Awsat – The Middle History
•    Al-Tarikh al-Saghir – The Small History
•    Khalq Afaal Al-Ibaad – a treatise dealing with Sunni creed
As it is commonly referred to, is one of the six canonical hadith collections of Sunni Islam. These prophetic traditions, or hadith, were collected by the Persian Muslim scholar Muhammad Ibn Ismail al-Bukhari (810–870 AD) 194–256 H (about 200 years after Muhammad died) and compiled during his lifetime. Sunni Muslims view this as their most trusted collection of hadith and it is considered the most authentic book after the Quran. The Arabic word Sahih translates as authentic or correct.
Ibn al-Salah also said: "The number of hadith in his book, the Sahih, is seven thousand, two hundred and seventy five hadith including hadith occurring repeatedly. It has been said that this number excluding repeated hadith is four thousand." This is referring to those hadith which are musnad, those from the Companions originating from the Prophet with what is apparently a connected chain.
Bukhari finished his work around 846, and spent the last twenty-four years of his life visiting other cities and scholars, teaching the hadith he had collected. In every city that he visited, thousands of people would gather in the main mosque to listen to him recite traditions. In reply to Western academic doubts as to the actual date and authorship of the book that bears his name, Sunni scholars point out that notable hadith scholars of that time, such as Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (855 CE/241 AH), Ibn Main (847 CE/233 AH), and Ibn Madini (848 CE/234 AH), accepted the authenticity of his book and that the collection's immediate fame makes it unlikely that it could have been revised after the author's death.

Abu Dawud Sulaiman bin al-ibn Ishaaq ibn Basyir Asyas Syidad (Imam Abu-Dawud)

After Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim, Imam Abu Dawud is now the turn which is also a prominent figure hadith scholar of his day. Piety and his glory kesalihan fragrant scent until now.
Full name is Abu Dawud Sulaiman bin al-ibn Ishaaq ibn Basyir Asyas Syidad bin Amr al-Azdi as-Sijistani, a priest who is very meticulous hadith experts, prominent experts after two priests Hadith Bukhari and Muslim as well as the author book of Sunan.

Name    :        Abu Dawud Sulaiman bin al-ibn Ishaaq.
Title    :        Abu Dawud
Birth    :         202 AH/817AD in Sijistan, Iran
Death    :        16 Syawwal 275AH/889AD,Basra
Region    :        Eminent scholar
Maddhab    :    Sunni
School    :         Hanbali
Works    :        Sunan Abu Dawud
Early life
Imam Abu Dawud was born in Sajistan, a famous city in Khurasan. He belonged to the Arab tribe, Azd. Even though he was born in Sajistan he spent the greater part of his life at Basrah which was the seat of Islamic learning in his time. He was blessed with an exceptional mind. Imam Abu Dawud had to read a book only once to commit its entire contents to memory. He was well versed in the criticism of hadith and an expert in distinguishing the sound hadith from the weak and defective ones. Besides his expertise in hadith he was also a great jurist. He had keen insight in fiqh and ijtihad. He was a religious man. He led a pious and ascetic life. He devoted most of his time for worship, devotion and remembrance of Allah. He always kept away from men of rank, the company of sultans and courtiers.

Last years
After experiencing a full life filled with blessings ilmia activities, collect and disseminate the hadith, Abu Dawud died in Basra, which maketh as a residence at the request of Amir as already described. Abu Dawood visited Baghdad several times. There he taught hadith and fiqh to its residents by using the Book of Sunan as a handle. Book of Sunan his work was demonstrated to figure hadith scholar, Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Imam Ahmad proudly praised it as a very beautiful book and well. Then Abu Dawood settled in Basra at the request of local governors who want me to Basra to "Kaaba" for scientists and enthusiasts of Hadith. He died on 16 Syawwal 275AH/889AD. 

Abu Dawud wrote about twenty one books in his life in which most famous are
•    Book-Sunnan (Sunan Abu Dawud).
•    The Book of Al-Marasil.
•    The Book of Al-Qadr.
•    An-Nasikh wal-Mansukh.
•    Fadail al-Amal.
•    Book Az-Zuhd.
•    An-Nubuwah Dalail.
•    Ibtida 'al-Revelation.
•    Ahbar al-Khawarij.
Sunan Abi Dawud
Abu Dawud in his Sunan not only put-Hadith sahih hadith that has been done purely as Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim, but he also put into it Hadith sahih, hasan Hadith, Hadith Daeef that is not too weak and the Hadith are not agreed upon by the priests for abandonment. Hadith-Hadith is very weak, he explained his weakness.
In his book the way in which it can be known from his letters that he sent to the inhabitants of Mecca in response to questions posed to them about the book of his Sunan.

Abu Dawud wrote the following:

"I hear and write Hadith Prophet of 500,000 units. Of that amount, I selected 4800 as the Hadith then I pour this in the book of Sunan. In the book I gather the Hadith-Hadith sahih, and an approaching semi sahih. In the book I did not include any of a hadith which have been agreed by the crowd to be abandoned. Any Hadith that contains my weakness is explained, as the hadith of this kind there is no sahih Hadith sanadnya”. The Hadith which we do not give the slightest explanation, then the Hadith is worth pious (bias used reason, argument), and a party of a sahih hadith is sahih there are more than others. We do not know a book, after the Quran, which should be studied other than this book.

Abu Isa Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Sawrah ibn Musa ibn al-Dahhak al-Sulami al-Tirmidhi (Al-Tirmidhi)

Tirmidhi, also transliterated as Tirmizi, full name Abu Isa Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Sawrah ibn Musa ibn al Dahhak al-Sulami al-Tirmidhi His name is Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Sawrah ibn Musa ibn Ad-Dahhak - and it is also said that he was Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Yazid ibn Sawrah ibn As-Sakan - the Hafiz, the notable scholar, the proficient Imam, As-Sulami, At-Tirmidhi, Ad-Darir (the Blind).

Name        :    Abu Isa Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Sawrah ibn Musa ibn al-Dahhak al-Sulami al-Tirmidhi
Title        :    Tirmidhi
Birth        :    824 AD (209 AH) Termez, Persia Death        :    892 AD (13 Rajab 279 AH) Termez, Persia Region        :    Iranian Muslim Scholar
Maddhab    :    Sunni School        :    Shafii Works        :    Sunan al-Tirmidhi or Jami at-Tirmidhi
Early life
He was born and died in Baugh (Persian meaning 'Garden'), a suburb of Termez, Khurasan, Iran (Present day in Uzbekistan), to a family of the widespread Banu Sulaym tribe.During the reign of the Abbasid Khalifa Mamun al-Rashid. The Abbasid Caliphate, despite its brilliant contributions to Islam, brought along with it many thorny problems. Greek Philosophy had a free flow into the Islamic world. This was fully sanctioned by the government until eventually it declared the Mutazila school of thought as the state religion. Anyone who opposed the Mutazila school of thought would be opposing the state. With the influence of Greek philosophy infiltrating within the people, many Muslims began attempting to reconcile between reason and revelation. As a result they deviated themselves and misled many innocent weak Muslims away from Allah and His Prophet. Many scholars of Islam had come to the fore in order to defend the Shariah. Forgeries and interpolations in Hadith by rulers who wished to fulfill their personal motives were common. In the first century `Umar bin Abdul `Aziz initiated a movement for the compilation of the holy hadith of the Prophet as there was a fear of it being lost. Eventually this gigantic task was undertaken by six towering scholars of Islam. One of them was Imam Abu Isa Muhammad ibn `Isa Tirmidhi.
Last years
Tirmidhi was blind in the last two years of his life, said to have been the consequence of his weeping over the death of Bukhari. In the year 279 A.H. in a village called Bawag at the age of 70, Imam Tirmidhi left this temporary abode for the everlasting life of the hereafter. Tirmidhi is buried in Sherobod, 60 kilometers north of Termez. He is locally known as Isa Termizi or Termiz Baba (Father of Termez City).
Tirmidhi wrote nine books of which, after the Jami‛, al-'Ilal al-Kabir and Shamail are the best-known; only four of his works survive. He played a major part in giving the formerly vague terminology used in classifying hadith according to their reliability a more precise set of definitions.
Imam Tirmidhi classifies most of the Ahadith and mentions its reliability. Altogether Imam Tirmidhi uses nine different terms.
•    Sahih: That hadith wherein each reporter must be trustworthy, he must have the power of retention and thousand of the hadith must go back to Nabi (sallallahu alyhi wasallam) without any interruption, it must agree with those of other reliable reporters and there should be no hidden defect in the matan or the sanad. N.B. Imam Tirmidhi does not consider it a prerequisite that a sahih Hadith must have several chains of narrators.
•    Hasan: That hadith which does not contain a reporter accused of lying, it is not shaaz and the hadith has been reported through more than one sanad.
•    Daeef: Such a hadith wherein the narrators are not trustworthy, or they don't posses the ability of retaining, or there is a break in the chain of narrators or the hadith is shaaz or mualall.
•    Gharib: According to Imam Tirmidhi a hadith is classified gharib for one of the following reasons...
(a) It is narrated from one chain only.
(b) There is some addition in the text.
(c) It is narrated through various chains of transmitters but having within one of its chains an addition in thousand.
•    Hasan gharib: These two can be combined. I.e. hasan refers to the up righteousness of the narrators whilstgharib implies that he is alone in transmitting the hadith.
•    Sahih gharib: This term implies that the hadith is authentic but there is only one sanad.
•    Hasan sahih gharib: This hadith is hasan since it has several chains of transmitters; it is sahih as the chains are all authentic and it is gharib in the words that Imam Tirmidhi narrated.
•    Hasan sahih: This term has caused much confusion amongst the Muhadditheen since hasan is lower in rank than sahih. While sahih indicates to the excellent retention power of a narrator, hasan indicates to a deficiency in this regard hence it seems those both are opposites and is not possible to reconcile.
Sunan al-Tirmidhi
Al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi has been categorized as fifth amongst the six most authentic books of hadith. According to the most preferred opinion, Bukhari enjoys the highest status, followed by Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasai, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah respectively. Haji Khalifa in al-Kashf al-Dhunoon has categorized Tirmidhi in third position. Al-Dhahabi has written that Tirmidhi in actual fact should be holding the third position, but due to him bringing weak narrators like Kalbi and Masloob its status has dropped.
It contains about 4000 hadiths. After each hadith he comments on its legal usage and the quality of its isnad. He has personal notes on almost every page which mention the degrees of authenticity of the hadith, the different versions of a single report, as well as the various currents of thought in practise in the Islamic world at this time. This makes his Jami (a collection which contains information on all subject matters) unique.

Ahmad ibn Shuayb, Abu Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai (Al-Nasai)

Al-Nasā'ī full name Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasā'ī, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote one of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by SunniMuslims, Sunan al-Sughra, or "Al-Mujtaba", which he selected from his "As-Sunan al-Kubra". As well as 15 other books, 6 dealing with the science of hadith.

Name        :    Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb, Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasā'ī
Title        :    Al-Nasa'i
Birth        :    214 AH /829 AD in the Persian province of Khorasan
Death        :    303 AH /915 AD in  Makkah
Maddhab    :    Sunni
Works        :    He wrote 16 books on different topics of Islam.

Early life
He was born in Nasa situated in Western Asia known at that time as Khurasan which was a famous centre for Islamic Knowledge where millions of Ulama's were situated and Hadith and Fiqh was at its peak. Thus he primarily attended the gatherings and circles of knowledge (known as halqas) in his town and attained knowledge, especially Hadith from the Ulama's. After gaining hadith from the teachers his own city, Imam an-Nasai traveled through Khorasan, Iraq, the Hijaz Syria and Egypt gaining ahadith. Egypt was where Imam an-Nasai settled and established his center for teaching and studies here. He resided in Egypt for a while, and then in Damascus. Imam an-Nasai was said to have exhausted many of his days and nights in prayers, repeatedly performed Hajj and also joined the Muslim army to participate in battle. He was very particular of the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH), had a hatred for deviation and avoided the circles of kings and nobles.
Last years
There is no consensus of opinion about where he died. Daraqutni priest explained, when a cubaan bahawa tragic in Damascus that he asked that was brought to Mecca. This petition was granted and he died in Mecca, and then buried somewhere between Safa and Marwah. The same opinion also expressed by MANDAH of Hamzah bin Abdullah al-Misri al-'Uqbi and other scholars.
Imam az-Zahabi not agree with the opinion above. According to the right is bahawa Nisaa'i meningal in Ramlah, a place in Palestine. Ibn Yunus in Tarikhnya agree with this opinion, as well as Abu Ja'far at-Tahawi and Abu Bakr ibn Naqatah. In addition to this opinion stating bahawa he died at Ramlah, but certainly he was interred in the Baitul Maqdis. He died in 303 AH /915 AD in  Makkah.
al-Nasa'i died a brutal death for praising Ali and denouncing Muawiya in Damascus, which was then in the grip of anti-Ali fever stoked by the Umayyads. Ibn Khallikan in his Wafayat al-ayan, records the incident that killed al-Nasa'i: "Abd al-Rahman Ahmad bin ‘Ali bin Shu’ayb bin ‘Ali bin Sinan bin Bahr al-Nasa’i, chief hadith scholar of his age and author of a Sunan, or collection of hadiths, was an inhabitant of Old Cairo, in which city his works got into circulation, and where he had also many pupils."
He wrote 16 books, 6 dealing with the science of hadith. The famous ones are

1.    Sunan An-Nasai (as-Sunan as-Sughra)
2.    Sunan al-Kubra
3.    Salah
4.    Shi'a view of Muawiyah
5.    Historiography of early Islam
Sunan An-Nasai (as-Sunan as-Sughra)
Sunan an-Nasa'i  also known as As-Sunan as-Sughra  is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, and was collected by Al-Nasa'i.
Sunnis regard this collection as third in strength of their six major Hadith collections . This sunan is one with the fewest weak hadiths after the two sahih collections. The sunan which is one of the six is al Mujtaba or as Sunan as Sughara, which is a synopsis of a large collection of hadiths which he considered to be fairly reliable. In the smaller collection he only included those hadiths which he considered to be reliable.
Al-Mujtaba (English: the selected) has about 5270 hadith, including repeated narrations, which the author selected from his larger work, As-Sunan al-Kubra. The hadiths in this compilation are arranged according to their legal import. They include traditions that were notavailable from earlier compilations.

Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Yazid Ibn Majah al-Rabi al-Qazwini (Ibn Majah)

Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn Yazeed Ar-Reb`ai (also known as Ibn Majah) was born in Qazween (modern-day Bahr Qazween) in 209 AH (824 CE). Qazween at that time was a capital of knowledge abounding with scientific activities and circles of scholars and jurists, just like the other radiant centers of knowledge and civilization, foremost of which are Baghdad, Kufah, Basrah, Marw, and Esfahan.

Name        :    Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Yazid Ibn Majah al-Rabi al-Qazwini
Title        :    Ibn Mājah
Birth        :    209 AH / 824 AD
Death        :    / 887 AD or 889 AD
Maddhab    :    Sunni
Works        :    Sunan ibn Mājah, Kitāb at-Tafsīr and Kitāb at-Tārīkh

Early life
Ibn Majah thus lived the first stages of his life within that scholarly atmosphere. So, he memorized the noble Qur'an and frequented the circles of Hadith scholars that were widely held in Qazween's mosques, until he learned a lot in this discipline. Then he made his plan for a journey in the pursuit of Hadith, which was a tradition followed by the greatest scholars of Hadith in that era, in compliance with the Prophetichadithsthat encourage the pursuit of knowledge.
The Abbasid Empire was then at its peak of civilization and power, and Al-Ma'moun was the influential Caliph, who led the Caliphate toward progress and an Islamic-spirited renaissance.
Last years
After an arduous journey that lasted more than 15 years, Ibn Majah turned back to Qazween and settled in it. He spent most of his time writing, classifying, and narratinghadiths. At that time, his fame grew far and wide and seekers of knowledge from everywhere would come to him.
Ibn Majah gained the trust and respect of his contemporaries. He was deemed one of the greatest imams and scholars of Hadith.The author ofAt-tadween Fi Tarikh Qazween(Arabic for recording the history of Qazween) said of him, "He is one of the great imams of Muslims; he is excellent and accurate; he enjoys unanimous acceptance."
Also, Adh-Dhahabi (a reputable Islamic scholar,excelling in knowledge of Hadith, History and others) said about him, "He is an erudite, reliablehafiz. Al-Dhahabī mentioned the following of Ibn Mājah's works

1.    Sunan Ibn Mājah: one of the six canonical collections of hadith
2.    Kitāb al-Tafsīr: a book of Quran exegesis
3.    Kitāb al-Tārīkh: a book of history or, more likely, a listing of hadith transmitters

Sunan ibn Majah
The only surviving book written by Ibn Majah isSunan.This book has achieved widespread fame and gave him renown and prestigious status among the scholars of Hadith. The book ranks as the fourth book of Sunnah after the three well-known books of Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa'i. It is also one of six important books of Sunnah that includeSahihof Al-Bukhari and Muslim,besides the aforementioned books. These books are fundamental references of Sunnah.
The Sunan consists of 1,500 chapters and about 4,000 hadith.Upon completing it, he read it to Abū Zurʻah, a hadith authority of his time, who commented, "I think that were people to get their hands on this, the other collections, or most of them, would be rendered obsolete.